Heat buildings should provide thermal comfort for those in their people or the possibility of technological standards for the parameters of internal air temperature depending on the purpose of facilities and equipment located in them. In the current climate conditions and long cold winters in Russia, people stay indoors is not possible without a functional heating system, which provides compensation for heat loss through the enclosing exterior design and an external heat supply air to the sanitary norms. According to observations for a person should preferably be the most optimal rules in a residential area, administrative and residential and public buildings: indoor air temperature 20-22 C, relative humidity 30-45%, the rate of air flow up to 0,2 m / sec. Such standards are necessary for people which are continuously more than two hours in the room. The choice of design heating depends primarily on the type of thermal energy used for heating the indoor air temperature. For our country is characterized the presence of large forest areas and in connection with the wood from ancient times has been the primary fuel, the burning of which generates thermal energy for space heating.
In the years 1900-1920. proportion of wood held in energy balance of the state – 60-50%. As fuel wood is a renewable source of heat, because when you correct approach in the management of forestry firewood is primarily dead wood, which should be removed to avoid the multiplication of harmful forest insects and diseases. The use of wood for heating device required massive and multi-pass furnace, they heat flue gases from burning wood is practically a day delayed in laying bricks. Posted by Russian masters of massive construction of the heat furnaces acquired the name "Russian stove". Stove heating device provides not only heating the room, but its ventilation. During the reconstruction of homes in 20 – 30-ies last century chimneys of furnaces to plug and heat the premises took place due to the device under windows, cast-iron batteries for which serve hot coolant from the central source (boiler or CHP). Sealing of chimneys led to the emergence of stuffiness in the premises, taking a sip from the battery.
This experiment shows that the space heating due closely with ventilation. Dismantling the furnace heating for reconstruction, it is necessary to lay new channels for the ventilation system. Heating system consists of the following parts: – source thermal energy – heat transporting device for the premises – heaters that transfer heat energy to heat the air space. By the nature of communication source generation thermal energy from the heated rooms of the heating system is divided into: – Local, where the heaters and the source of thermal energy production are located in the heated room or in close proximity – central, where the source of thermal energy production runs at the heating of buildings and related transportation devices with heating appliances installed in heated rooms. To the local system heating include, for example, stoves that burn coal or wood. Source of thermal energy in this case are the waste gases produced from burning fuel. Flue gases are highly temperature and heated masonry brick multi-pass flues. Another kind of local heat supply systems are air-gas units, they heat to the heated environment, be passed through the separation wall. In our country the most widespread, with 30 years of the last century, were central to the heating system.